This guide loosely follows along with the text of Scala for the Impatient, a great introductory book for those learning Scala. You might find it helpful to read it alongside the chapters from this repo.
Note that in general, you should not try to directly translate idioms from one language to another; you don't want to write Scala that looks like Python- you want to write Scala that looks like Scala! You should strive to write idiomatic code whenever possible. A good starting point is Twitter's Effective Scala
Download here (pdf)
Download here (epub)
Download here (mobi)